salient features of indian constitution

Salient features of Indian constitution

Salient features of Indian constitution: The Indian Constitution, adopted on 26th January, 1950, is considered one of the most comprehensive and longest constitutions in the world. It lays down the fundamental principles and rules that govern the functioning of the Indian political system. The Constitution of India comprises of a preamble, 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 448 articles. The following are some features of the constitution of India.

Salient features of Indian constitution Salient features of indian

Salient features of the Indian constitution

  1. Preamble: The Preamble is a brief introduction to the Constitution that states the objectives and principle. It lays down the fundamental values and principles of the Constitution, including justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  2. Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution guarantees certain rights to all citizens, known as Fundamental Rights. These include the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, and the right to life and personal liberty.
  3. Directive Principles of State Policy: It also lays down certain principles that the government is expected to follow in order to promote the welfare of the people. These are known as the Directive Principles of State Policy and include the promotion of education, the protection of public health, and the promotion of economic and social justice.
  4. Separation of Powers: It provides for a system of checks and balances between the different branches of government. The executive, legislature, and judiciary are separate and independent from each other, with each having its own powers and responsibilities.
  5. Federal Structure: India has a federal structure of government, with the powers and responsibilities of the central government and the state governments clearly defined. It lays down the distribution of powers between the central and state governments, and also provides for the establishment of a body known as the Inter-State Council to resolve disputes between the states.
  6. Reservation of Seats: The Indian Consti. provides for the reservation of seats in the legislature and public services for certain sections of society, such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, to ensure their representation and to promote their welfare.
  7. Emergency Provisions: The structure also provides for certain emergency provisions that can be invoked in times of war, external aggression, or internal disturbance. These include the President’s Rule, which allows the President to take over the administration of a state in certain circumstances, and the imposition of national emergency, which allows the central government to take over the administration of the entire country.
  8. Amending the Consti.: The amendment process requires a majority of the members of both houses of the legislature, as well as the ratification of at least half of the state legislatures.
  9. Independent Judiciary: The Indian Consti. provides for an independent judiciary, with the Supreme Court and High Courts having the power to interpret the Consti. and to strike down laws that are in violation of the Consti.
  10. Right to Property: The Indian Consti. originally provided for the right to property as a Fundamental Right, but this was later deleted through the 44th Amendment Act, 1978.
  11. Right to Education: The Indian Consti. provides for the right to education as a Fundamental Right, under Article 21A.
  12. Schedules: It has 12 schedules, which contain various lists and provisions that are supplementary to the main body. These include the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List, which provide for the distribution of powers between the central and state governments, and the Eleventh Schedule, which lays down the provisions for the formation of Panchayats and Municipalities.

In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document that lays down the framework for the governance of the country, and guarantees certain rights and freedoms to all citizens. It also lays down the principles of good governance and the distribution of powers between the different


  1. What is the role of the judiciary in the Salient features of Indian constitution?
  • The judiciary plays an important role in the Indian Consti. as the guardian of the Constitution and the protector of individual rights. The judiciary has the power to interpret the Constitution and to strike down any law that is in violation of the Constitution.


2. What are the different types of emergencies provided in the Indian constitution?

  • The Indian Constitution provides for three types of emergencies: national emergency, state emergency, and financial emergency. A national emergency can be proclaimed by the President if there is a threat to the security of India. A state emergency can be proclaimed by the President if there is a failure of constitutional machinery in a state. A financial emergency can be proclaimed by the President if the financial stability or credit of India is threatened.

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